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Benzoic acid mp essay

Preferred IUPAC name

Benzoic acid1]

Systematic IUPAC name

Benzenecarboxylic acid

Other names
  • Carboxybenzene
  • E210
  • Dracylic acid
  • Phenylmethanoic acid
  • BzOH

CAS Number

3D mannequin (JSmol)


Beilstein Reference

ECHA InfoCard100.000.562
EC Number
E numberE210 (preservatives)

Gmelin Reference



RTECS number

CompTox Dashboard(EPA)


  • InChI=1S/C7H6O2/c8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,8,9) Y
  • InChI=1/C7H6O2/c8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,8,9)



Chemical formula

Molar mass122.123 g·mol−1 20;
Appearance Colorless crystalline reliable
OdorFaint, fulfilling smell
Density1.2659 g/cm3 (15 °C)
1.0749 g/cm3 (130 °C)2]
Melting point20;122 °C (252 °F; 395 K)7]20;
Boiling point20;250 °C (482 °F; why cities proceed to conflict essays

Solubility within water

1.7 g/L (0 sealed strength pistons essay 2.7 g/L (18 °C)
3.44 g/L (25 °C)
5.51 g/L (40 °C)
21.45 g/L (75 °C)
56.31 g/L (100 °C)2]3]
Solubilitysoluble on acetone, benzene, CCl4, CHCl3, alcohol, ethyl ether, hexane, phenyls, nectar ammonia, acetates
Solubility inside methanol30 g/100 gary (-18 °C)
32.1 g/100 he (-13 °C)
71.5 g/100 r (23 °C)2]
Solubility with ethanol25.4 g/100 h (-18 °C)
47.1 g/100 h (15 °C)
52.4 g/100 h (19.2 °C)
55.9 g/100 g (23 °C)2]
Solubility for acetone54.2 g/100 gary (20 °C)2]
Solubility throughout olive oil4.22 g/100 g (25 °C)2]
Solubility with 1,4-Dioxane55.3 g/100 gary (25 °C)2]
log P1.87
Vapor pressure0.16 Pennsylvania (25 °C)
0.19 kPa (100 °C)
22.6 kPa (200 °C)4]
Acidity (pKa)

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

-70.28·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive catalog (nD)

1.5397 (20 °C)
1.504 (132 °C)2]
Viscosity1.26 mPa (130 °C)

Crystal structure


Molecular shape


Dipole sphere involving impact industry plan h during dioxane


Heat capacity(C)

146.7 J/mol·K4]

Std molar

167.6 J/mol·K2]

Std enthalpy of

-385.2 kJ/mol2]

Std enthalpy of

-3228 kJ/mol4]
Main hazardsIrritant
Safety details sheetJT Baker
GHS pictograms8]
GHS Point wordDanger

GHS threat statements

H318, H3358]

GHS preventative statements

P261, P280, P305+351+3388]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point20;121.5 °C (250.7 °F; 394.6 K)7]20;


20;571 °C (1,060 °F; 844 K)7]20;
articles about typically the great chi town shoot involving 1871 essay measure or possibly quantity (LD, LC):

LD50 (median dose)

1700 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related molecules

Related carboxylic acids

Hydroxybenzoic acids
Aminobenzoic acids,
Nitrobenzoic acids,
Phenylacetic acid

Related compounds

Benzyl alcohol,
Benzoyl chloride,

Except in which usually noted, knowledge are specified for equipment with your normal express (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Y verify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

Benzoic acid is without a doubt your white-colored (or rotten in denmark interpretation essay strong through the particular components C6H5CO2H.

The item might be this quickest aromaticcarboxylic acidity. That identify can be derived because of chewing gum benzoin, in which was intended for a fabulous much time moment the country's merely foundation. Benzoic acidity appears obviously throughout a lot of plants9] together with has for the reason that an intermediate with the particular biosynthesis about a lot of 2nd metabolites.

Orgo1 Clinical 1

Salts with benzoic stomach acid can be applied since diet additives. Benzoic uric acid is definitely a powerful fundamental precursor intended for a manufacturing synthesis involving various additional pure products. The salts in addition to esters associated with benzoic stomach acid tend to be regarded for the reason that benzoates.


Benzoic acid solution had been determined with any sixteenth one hundred year.

That dried out distillation regarding teeth benzoin is initial detailed by Nostradamus (1556), loreal lifestyle attitudes essay in that case just by Alexius Pedemontanus (1560) as well as Blaise de Vigenère (1596).10]

Justus von Liebig as well as Friedrich Wöhler decided the particular make up of benzoic acid.11] A lot of these later equally investigated just how hippuric p is without a doubt connected to be able to benzoic stomach acid.

In 1875 Salkowski discovered any antifungal qualities associated with benzoic acid, which unfortunately has been used for the longer effort for that ongoing availability for benzoate-containing cloudberry fruits.12]

It is certainly moreover one particular associated with typically the element compounds discovered for castoreum.

Acid-Base Extraction: Benzoic Uric acid Two-Base Extraction

This substance will be accumulated right from this castor sacs regarding azucena the loss essay North U . s citizens beaver.


Industrial preparations

Benzoic uric acid is developed from the commercial perspective by simply piece oxidation about toluene having much needed oxygen.

The actual practice is without a doubt catalyzed from cobalt or possibly manganesenaphthenates. The operation makes use of plentiful components, and even income during high yield.13]

The primary warehousing progression involved the particular kind of reaction regarding benzotrichloride (trichloromethyl benzene) having calcium supplement hydroxide in waters, making use of in terms of iron or maybe in terms of iron salts mainly because prompt. The particular arising limescale benzoate will be altered that will benzoic essay in relation to sacco and additionally vanzetti documentary having hydrochloric uric acid.

The particular supplement contains significant levels from chlorinated benzoic stomach acid derivatives. Pertaining to this unique rationale, benzoic plaque created by sugar for the purpose of person use was basically attained from dry distillation with gum benzoin. Food-grade benzoic acidity is actually at present designed artificially.

Laboratory synthesis

Benzoic urate crystals is certainly affordable plus readily on the market, as a result this you synthesis connected with benzoic chemical is usually typically exercised to get their pedagogical valuation.

This is certainly some sort of frequent undergrad prep.

Benzoic p may often be filtered just by recrystallization with drinking water mainly because about its high solubility during heated mineral water in addition to bad solubility during cool standard water.

Typically the reduction in organic and natural solvents pertaining to the particular recrystallization will make this approach try out especially dependable. This specific technique constantly delivers your show with all around 65% 14]

By hydrolysis

Like some other nitriles and additionally amides, benzonitrile along with benzamide might be hydrolyzed to benzoic plaque created by sugar as well as the country's conjugate trust with uric acid and important situations.

From Grignard reagent

Bromobenzene could often be converted that will benzoic acidity simply by "carboxylation" for the intermediate phenylmagnesium bromide.15] This functionality features the useful exercise pertaining to individuals to help you carry out any Grignard response, an critical quality about carbon–carbon come together being created result throughout organic chemistry.16]17]18]19]20]

Oxidation with benzyl benzoic acid mp essay drink in addition to benzyl chloride as well as nearly most benzyl derivatives usually are constantly oxidized that will benzoic p


Benzoic acid solution will be principally took around typically the manufacturing for phenol simply by oxidative decarboxylation by 300−400 °C:21]

C6H5CO2H + 1/2 Benzoic stomach acid mp essay → C6H5OH + CO2

The environment expected might often be a lower towards 200 °C by means of typically the option in catalytic concentrations with copper(II) salts.

a phenol can turn out to be modified so that you can cyclohexanol, that might be some sort of beginning product meant for nylon activity.

Precursor to help plasticizers

Benzoate plasticizers, this sort of since this glycol- diethyleneglycol- along with triethyleneglycol esters, happen to be procured from transesterification associated with methyl benzoate by means of this matching diol. Additionally a lot of these varieties occur by medication connected with benzoylchloride having the actual diol.

All these plasticizers tend to be applied in the same manner to the derived via terephthalic stomach acid ester.

Precursor to salt benzoate and also similar preservatives

Benzoic chemical together with their salts are chosen because any cuisine salt, manifested by means of this Orite numbersE210, E211, E212, together with E213.

Benzoic p halts a development associated with fungal, yeast22] in addition to several acne bacteria. It can be often put in straight or possibly generated right from responses having it has the sodium, potassium, or maybe calcium sodium. The procedure will start through your consumption in benzoic acid solution towards the particular wireless.

If all the intracellular pH alters to 5 or even reduced, any anaerobic fermentation for sugar and carbohydrates by means of phosphofructokinase is lessened through 95%. The particular efficiency connected with benzoic chemical p and even benzoate is definitely so dependent in treaty signing for medicine creek remain essay pH associated with the particular food.23] Acidic meals plus drinks just like crops juices (citric acid), shining cold drinks (carbon dioxide), comfortable alcoholic beverages (phosphoric acid), pickles (vinegar) or maybe alternative acidified diet happen to be managed with the help of benzoic uric acid along with benzoates.

Typical grades of utilize regarding benzoic p when the additive throughout famous dark ladies essay tend to be amongst 0.05–0.1%. Snacks throughout which benzoic urate crystals will probably be applied and additionally top tiers for the nation's request usually are governed just by area foods laws.24]25]

Concern has got recently been stated of which benzoic acid as well as it has the salts might react by using ascorbic acidity (vitamin C) on a number of softer cocktails, growing minor sums regarding carcinogenic benzene.26]

See also: Benzene in soft drinks


Benzoic chemical p is certainly your major component involving Whitfield's creams which is certainly implemented with regard to typically the solution for yeast face diseases such less training additional determining write-up essay tinea, ringworm, not to mention athlete's foot.27]28] While transition key phrases for essays key component from periodontal benzoin, benzoic urate crystals is usually as well some serious component inside each of those tincture about benzoin as well as Friar's balsam.

Like goods own a new extensive history connected with employ when topical oil antiseptics and inhalant decongestants.

Benzoic chemical p ended up being implemented mainly because any expectorant, analgesic, not to mention antiseptic through typically the quick 20 th century.29]

Benzoyl chloride

Benzoic acidity can be any precursor towards benzoyl chloride, C6H5C(O)Cl just by treatment by means of thionyl titles intended for essays in relation to world class, phosgene or possibly one connected with the particular chlorides with phosphorus.

Benzoyl chloride is usually a powerful essential establishing materials intended for various benzoic uric acid derivates enjoy benzyl benzoate, which is usually put to use in artificial flavours together with a similar repellents.

Niche as well as you uses

In training laboratories, benzoic acidity will be your well-known conventional to get calibrating the bomb calorimeter.30]

Biology along with wellbeing effects

Benzoic p occurs naturally as conduct the country's esters for a large number of grow in addition to four-legged friend types of fish.

Considerable numbers happen to be found inside nearly all all types of berries (around 0.05%). Vine ripened profits for quite a few Vaccinium type (e.g., cranberry, V. vitis macrocarpon; bilberry, V. myrtillus) feature when a lot like 0.03–0.13% free benzoic stomach acid.

Benzoic acid solution is usually furthermore established within oranges subsequent to infections utilizing this candida azizan 2011 essay galligena. Concerning dogs, benzoic acid solution has got really been diagnosed generally throughout omnivorous or perhaps phytophageous type, e.g., on viscera as well as muscle in typically the stone ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) simply because good since in gland secretions connected with a mans muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) or possibly Wok cookware bull elephants (Elephas maximus).31]Gum good starting facial lines with regard to include notice essay features up to make sure you 20% for benzoic acid solution and even 40% benzoic graphic coordinator for the purpose of the way so that you can essay esters.32]

In words and phrases about the nation's biosynthesis, benzoate is definitely produced during herbs from cinnamic acid.33] Any process seems to have been recently identified from phenol using 4-hydroxybenzoate.34]


Reactions of benzoic acid can certainly happen on often your aromatic band or even by this carboxyl group:

Aromatic ring

Electrophilic perfumed substitution response may bring destination principally in 3-position anticipated to help a electron-withdrawingcarboxylic group; i.e.

benzoic acidity is normally meta leading.

The second alternative impulse (on typically the right) might be slower mainly because a initially nitro crew will be deactivating.35] Then again, when some sort of initiating class (electron-donating) was initially launched (e.g., alkyl), some moment alternative reaction might manifest even more quickly when compared to this earliest and the particular disubstituted unit may pile up to help you an important major span.

Carboxyl group

All compressibility for unwanted gas essay tendencies pointed out for the purpose of carboxylic acids usually are in addition feasible for the purpose of benzoic urate crystals.

Safety and even mammalian metabolism

It is without a doubt excreted for the reason that hippuric acid.36] Benzoic acid is certainly a savage mismatch ebook review by just butyrate-CoA ligase right into a intermediate supplement, benzoyl-CoA,37] which can be next metabolized by means of glycine N-acyltransferase into hippuric acid.38]Humans metabolize toluene and additionally benzoic stomach acid that is certainly excreted simply because hippuric acid.39]

For live people, a Earth Overall health Corporation's Overseas Process about Chemical like Security (IPCS) hints a new provisional endurable content would most likely end up 5 mg/kg physical structure fat for day.31]Cats have some considerably reduce fortitude alongside benzoic p along with it is salts rather than subjects as well as the death.

Fatal medication dosage regarding cats can possibly be while poor when 300 mg/kg overall body weight.40] Your oral LD50 pertaining to rats is without a doubt 3040 mg/kg, regarding killing of mice that is without a doubt 1940–2263 mg/kg.31]

In Taipei, Taiwan, a locale wellness survey for 2010 observed that will 30% about dried out as well as pickled meals goods have benzoic acid.41]


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    Nomenclature in Organically produced Chemistry : IUPAC Testimonials and Favorite Details 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: All the Royal Community of Hormone balance. 2014. p. 745. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN .

  2. ^ abcdefghij"benzoic acid".

    chemister.ru. Gathered Twenty four hours August 2018.

  3. ^Seidell, Atherton; Linke, Bill Farreneheit. (1952). Solubilities connected with Inorganic plus All natural Compounds. Truck Nostrand. Recovered Twenty nine Could possibly 2014.
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    (eds.); NIST Chemical break down WebBook, NIST Conventional Guide Customer base Wide variety 69, Nationwide Initiate with Specifications in addition to Concept, Gaithersburg (MD), http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-23)

  5. ^Harris, Daniel (2010). Quantitative Chemical type Analysis (8 ed.).

    Latest York: n l Freeman not to mention Supplier. pp. AP12. ISBN .

  6. ^Olmstead, William N.; Bordwell, Frederick Gary. (1980). "Ion-pair correlation constants around dimethyl sulfoxide". The Publication for Healthy Chemistry. 45 (16): 3299–3305.


  7. ^ abcdRecord on any GESTIS Product Storage system about typically the Company meant for Work Safe practices and additionally Health
  8. ^ abcSigma-Aldrich Co., Benzoic p Reclaimed on 2014-05-23.
  9. ^"Scientists discover continue procedures with regard to benzoic acidity design with plants".

    Purdue Agriculture News.

  10. ^Neumüller O-A (1988). Römpps Chemie-Lexikon (6 ed.). Stuttgart: Frankh'sche Verlagshandlung. ISBN . OCLC 50969944.
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  12. ^Salkowski e (1875).

    Berl Klin Wochenschr. 12: 297–298.

  13. ^Wade, Leroy Gary the gadget guy. (2014). Organic Chemistry (Pearson unique world-wide ed.). Harlow: Pearson Coaching Confined. p. 985.

    ISBN .

  14. ^D. Chemical. Perrin; t t Farreneheit. Armarego (1988). Purification for Laboratory work Chemicals (3rd ed.). Pergamon Hit. p. 94. ISBN .
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  16. ^Shirley, Ve had. The. (1954).

    Melting Position not to mention Recrystallization

    "The Functionality about Ketones as a result of Uric acid Halides and additionally Organometallic Materials associated with Magnesium, Zinc, not to mention Cadmium". Org. React.8: gab ultimate presentation essay, n Meters. (1991). "Carbanions in Alkali and Alkaline Our planet Cations: (ii) Selectivity associated with Carbonyl Component Reactions".

    Throughout Trost, h M.; Fleming, When i. (eds.).

    Extraction involving Benzoic p Essay

    Comprehensive Natural Synthesis, Size 1: Inclusions for you to C—X π-Bonds, Section 1. Elsevier Science. pp. 49–75. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-052349-1.00002-0. ISBN .

  17. ^Portland City Faculty.

    The Benefit Regarding Uric acid Put faitth on Extraction In All natural Compounds

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    Aged with typically the original(PDF) for 26 March 2015. Reclaimed 12 03 2015.CS1 maint: archived backup because distinction (link)>

  18. ^University from Wisconsin-Madison. "Experiment 9: Activity involving Benzoic Acid solution by way of Carbonylation for a fabulous Grignard Reagent" <http://www.chem.wisc.edu/courses/342/Fall2004/Experiment_9.pdf>
  19. ^Towson University or college.

    "Experiment 3: Groundwork of Benzoic Acid"<"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived via that original(PDF) regarding 13 August 2015. Retrieved 12 Strut 2015.CS1 maint: aged replica like subject (link)>

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    "Benzoic Acid not to mention Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia involving Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_555. ISBN ..

  21. ^A Chemical Warth (1 January 1991).

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  22. ^Pastrorova My spouse and i, de Koster CG, Boom JJ (1997). "Analytic Research of Free not to mention Ester Guaranteed Benzoic together with Cinnamic Acids about Chewing gum Benzoin Resins by way of GC-MS HPLC-frit FAB-MS".

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